UK Censorship & London bans The Story of O:


“Films rated X are intended only for viewing by adults…”

UK Film magazines promised British film-goers more than the British film censor would allow in 1976. The three British film magazines from my ‘O’ archive, which feature Story of O upon their covers promised the flesh and golden tones of Just Jaeckin’s Histoire d’O (one reviewer, it was said, “had seen so much flesh he was considering turning vegetarian”) but the film would not be made available to UK cinemas until late 1999, and to video issue until 2000.

The Story of O film was presented several times for certification, firstly in 1976 when it was rejected by the BBFC censors headed then by James Ferman. Ferman

Ferman was born in New York on April 11 1930, the son of a film director who had worked with D W Griffiths. He was brought in to the British Board of Film Censors, as it then was, in 1975 when the board was in danger of losing its remit after a number of its decisions had been overturned by local authorities and some films had been subject to prosecutions by anti-pornography groups such as The Festival of Light.

In many ways he had a successful run (of 24 years): no film he certificated was ever prosecuted and yet the proportion of censor-cut films was reduced from 40 to four per cent as he replaced scissor work with classification upwards. Ferman gained a reputation as an overzealous censor as result of his refusal to allow several films from the 1970s to be released following the introduction of video censorship and the media outcry over “video nasties”. However, during his 24 years as director, he frequently came under fire for allowing the screening of violent or sexually explicit films such as Crash, Lolita, and Natural Born Killers.

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After being refused by Ferman and his team the distributors of The Story of O appealed to the Greater London Council’s film viewing board. They also refused a certificate. A number of cuts were made but these did not satisfy a full meeting of GLC members. September 26th 1978 found the London Evening Standard declaring on its front page:

“London bans The Story of O”

The Story of O was shown for the first time finally in London in December 1999, having been awarded a Camden Council 18 certificate, for a short run at the ABC Leicester Square and then for a run at the Picadilly, – twenty five years after its British ban.


‘O’ had been shown previously in London on a small number of occasions to private audiences. One showing was to a capacity audience in London at the French Institute. 

Membership undertaken previously was a requirement eagerly taken up by the London kink community. The London Institut Francais presented Histoire d’O (in its original French language) as part of a erotic film season entitled plaisir interditin (Eroticism in French cinema, 1930-1996) in the April of 1997.

The two part season saw Histoire d’O shown again in the May. Oddly, the accompanying still in the programme, attributed to the National Film Archive, was incorrect. It was an image from Kenneth Anger’s unfinished (and unseen) Story of O. Other films over the two months included Just Jaeckin’s Emmanuelle, Walerian Borowczyk’s Immoral Tales and Bernado Bertolucci’s Last Tango In Paris.

The Continental Film Review was a British film magazine celebrating all things sexy and continental. Undoubtedly a film magazine for incorrigible optimists. Continental featured movies from Italy, France, Sweden, and other continental countries that would rarely have been seen in the UK, except occasionally at gentleman’s adult cinema clubs, or at a flea-pit cinema for “one-day-only”, and stripped of all coherence by the British censor. I recall a European ‘The Sadist’ as a case in point, and a tiny cinema in Weston Super Mare, now long since demolished.


Continental Film Review did however, focus on the serious side of new cinema and championed the likes of Bergman, Luis Buñuel, Borowczyk, and Alain Robbe-Grillet. The magazine started up in 1952 and ran for almost four hundred issues terminating in 1984. As an art student in the early 1970s I found back-issues invaluable for collage and scrap-booking. Issue #288 sports ‘Story of O’ on its cover and is dated October 1976.

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Sporting Jane Birkin on the cover (a still from Catherine & Co.) Films and Filming dated March 1976 does in fact feature “The Story of O – Pictures inside” – a four page picture spread (in black and white) of the film then denied UK audiences.

Britain’s longest established screen monthly Films and Filming ran from October 1954 through till March 1990. In its original form it ceased publication with the June 1980 issue.


With a colour spread rivalling the Playboy edition featuring Story of O in December 1975, Cinema X proudly displayed The Story of O on its cover in the previous month. Originally A Cinemonde publication in colour, Cinema X appears to have been envisioned by the company as the British arm of their publishing empire, which already included a similar publication in France (Cinemonde) and in Italy (King Cinemonde). Gerald Kingsland was the magazine’s first editor. Very much born of the permissive climate of the late sixties, the first issue’s editorial stated: “So far the more adult magazines have reserved a few pages for the X cinema… blood and sex are only lightly touched on, Cinema X devotes all its time to the world’s X cinema.” 

Una-Histoire-dO-CivettaWikipedia states, “Cinema X was initially supportive of home-grown British sex films… By the mid-seventies, though, Cinema X’s love affair with the British sex film had begun to falter. The then extant policies of UK censorship meant that British films had to remain softcore while the United States and most of Europe headed into the hardcore porno chic era.” Cinema X ceased publication in the late 1970s but not before spawning its very own spin-off, Cinema Blue, in 1975, the year Jaeckin and his team completed Story of O.



“With Histoire d’O, I would change the era…!”


Model wearing hat by Jean Barthet, photo by Regina Relang, Paris, 1954

“the Histoire d’O was the dream book for me.” – Jean Jacques Pauvert

As a publisher of de Sade, Jean-Jacques Pauvert (who had began his career working in the mailroom at the Gallimard publishing house) became used to seeing much of Jean Paulhan. It irritated him however, that Paulhan continuously spoke of a mysterious manuscript which seemed never to appear. 

It did finally, and Story of O was delivered by Paulhan, into his hands, one cold and wet December night. A cleanly machine-typed manuscript with a little message:

“I would like you to read this. Either I am very mistaken, or else this book one day will have its place in the history of literature.”


Players in the “great adventure”: Jean-Jacques Pauvert


Jean Paulhan

Once home and having dined, Pauvert took a peek at the text and intrigued, read until he finished the manuscript at 1 am. He was stunned.

“It was the book I’d been seeking for years. Okay, I was the publisher of Sade, but with Histoire d’O, I would change the era… I felt delirious.”

Pauvert drew up a contract and after deliberating for some days upon the question of who the mysterious author must be of this manuscript (which had sent him light footed along the sidewalks of Paris as though at the start of a “great adventure”) he was introduced by Paulhan, in a bar at Pont-Royal, to Pauline Réage. “It was, of course, Dominique Aury. We knew each other well. And not only that, I had read her with delight.”


The face behind the mask: Dominique Aury

Pauvert recalls, “She stayed there, in her chair, as always modest, almost invisible. And seductive (she was 47 in 1954) Discreetly coiffed, discreetly dressed, discreetly seated like a well brought-up young woman, her voice soft and sweet.”

“I carried on wildly about her novel:” continues Pauvert, “a masterpiece, but above all a revolution. No one had written anything like it, and we were going to change the world…”

Aury (Declos) apparently spoke very little (“finding me, no doubt, excessive”). Perhaps she foresaw how difficult it would be for people to accept Story of O. After all, this was 1954. In the succeeding months the press would remain silent about Histoire d’O. The book sold badly.


“Everyone was expecting a total ban,” recalls Pf3efd889fc00e876b6cefe8105c0ff6aauvert. Rumors were spread. “They talked about a clandestine publication when, in fact, my name and my ad
dress were clearly written on it.”


One bookseller on the rue du Four went as far as claiming to customers, in whispers, that the book was banned. If customers were prepared to pay a big enough security deposit, they could RENT the novel for forty-eight hours!



From the Bookkeeper’s archive: French, American and British editions of Histoire d’O

The Gothic Element in Story of O: Roissy

“books are full of summonses. Of these some are constantly heard, others once only… all our secrets lie there.” Dominique Aury: Literary Landfalls


O in the garden at Roissy, as portrayed in the 1975 film Histoire d’O.

“The unfortunate, persecuted maiden! The subject is as old
as the world…”

Mario Praz The Romantic Agony

It is said the Gothic novel was invented almost single-handedly by Horace Walpole, whose The Castle of Otranto (1764) contains essentially all the elements that constitute the genre. The Castle of Otranto has influenced the novel, the short story, poetry, and film-making, ever since. The principle element, the remote castle, has been repeated down the ages with the addition of secret passages, abandoned wings, trap doors, secret rooms,Corridors and trick panels. Such a powerful motif of unease and abandonment has also in modern times, found its expression as the old dark house and its opposite, the modern home haunted by the past.


The ancient walls of de Sade’s La Coste

Dominique Aury writing as ‘Pauline Réage’ drew upon her huge store of knowledge and reading (she was familiar with the English Gothic novels) as well as from her repository of personal fantasies, in the formulation of her Histoire d’O. The castles of de Sade faultlessly become the novel’s private house of clandestine assignations to which ‘O’ is taken by her lover Rene, amid a secluded avenue of dwellings in “Roissy”.

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Did Aury imagine the chateau at Roissy-en-France or Roissy-en-Brie, both on the outskirts of Paris?


The discreet mansions of the Faubourg Saint-German

Roissy is described variously as a house or small private home (depending on which internet version of the novel you are reading), or as a hôtel (mansion – if you are reading the original text), in the style of those found about the Faubourg Saint-Germain in Paris.


Roissy as imagined by photographer Doris Kloster

By the following page the mansion is described as a château, presumably of some size. A ‘red wing’ is mentioned, marble floors lead to antechambers, drawing rooms, corridors, and the library, – long windows look out onto gardens – there are subterranean vaults. Little wonder many writers refer to the O château as simply a castle. In a trice we are in our very own Château de Lacoste. Our imaginations conjure a well furnished Castle of Otranto, Udoltho, or the Chateau d’O which Guido Crepax re-imagines, taken from its green Normandy riverside and perched upon a rocky cliff, Gothic and forbidding as approached by O and Rene.


The romantic Chateau d’O in Normandy, France, the inspiration for the Roissy of Italian comic-strip artist Guido Crepax


“she is typically incarcerated in a castle or monastery
and menaced by a sadistic nobleman…”


A cold draught does indeed blow all the way from Otranto and Mrs Radcliffe’s Udoltho to the corridors of Roissy. Walpole describes the,

lower part of the castle was hollowed into several intricate cloisters…an awful silence reigned throughout these subterranean regions, except now and then some blasts of wind that shook the door she (Isabella) had passed and which grating on the rusty hinges were re-echoed through that long labyrinth of darkness.”


Compare this with Reage;

Her bare feet froze on the icy tiles, she realized that she was walking down the red wing hallway, then the ground, as cold as before, became rough, she was walking upon flagstones, sandstone, perhaps granite. Twice the valet brought her to a halt, twice she heard a key scrape in a lock and a lock click as a door closed.”


Despite O’s acquiescence (her gaolers continually seek her approval) her stay at Roissy is tantamount to imprisonment well within the tradition of the damsel in distress. She suffers painful whippings, sexual assault, and many hours chained in silence and solitude. O takes her place in a long line of women in peril.

Wikipedia explains, “Reprising her medieval role, the damsel in distress is a staple character of Gothic literature, where she is typically incarcerated in a castle or monastery and menaced by a sadistic nobleman, or members of the religious orders. Early examples in this genre include Matilda in Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto, Emily in Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho, and Antonia in Matthew Lewis’ The Monk.”


Mario Praz in his authoritative The Romantic Agony has shown how essential features of the Romantic (‘Gothic’) literature were the peculiar “erotic sensibility” – a sensibility obsessed with the idea of pleasure obtained through cruelty, inflicted or received, sadistic or masochistic; and the presence of the ‘persecuted woman’, existing beside her opposite the Fatal Woman or femme fatale.


Praz identified the legacy and archetypes of the fatal man, the “Fatal Nobleman with piercing eyes and deadly ambition”, and also that oh so powerful a motif, the castle as “ruin”, one that now “implied the possibility of sinister developments – since old superstitions believed ruins haunted.”

Charles Lamb recorded, “the archetypes are in us and eternal.”

“In our sleep and in our dreams,” Dr Jung quotes Nietzsche, “we pass through the whole thought of earlier humanity. I mean, in the same way that man reasons in his dreams, he reasoned when in the waking state many thousands of years… the dream carries us back into earlier states of human culture…”

As if reiterating the sentiment Dominique Aury (“Pauline Reage”) wrote aptly,

“Who am I, finally, if not the long silent part of someone, the secret and nocturnal part… which communicates through the subterranean depths of the imaginary with dreams as old as the world itself – ?”



Old dark houses are, of course, traps.” writes Kim Newman. “The spider spinning his web for the unwary fly,” Count Dracula comments in Tod Browning’s Dracula (1931).

The continuing tradition of the ‘old dark house’ inspired Kim Newman to write, ” Old dark houses squat atop Carpathian mountains or moulder deep in Louisiana swamps, sit quietly in America suburbs or fester ion British council estates. They are hard to find on the map but impossible to avoid in a storm.”

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Count Dracula’s Carfax Abbey as it appears (although at night) in the 1978 John Badham directed “Dracula” starring Frank Langella. In actual fact, St Michael’s Mount, a walk away from my home in Penzance, West Cornwall.

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“The house was like a castle with its turrets, buttresses and matriculated towers
– a landmark to sailors who would know where they were when they saw that
pile of ancient stones…” MENFREYA Victoria Holt

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PULP FICTION: Barrymore Tebbs writes. “To heighten the sense of threat, the foreboding house often had a narrow sliver of light in a single window like a watchful eye keeping track of the desperately fleeing heroine to make certain she didn’t stray too far from the grounds of the estate. This lighted window, in fact the entire motif of the Gothic Romance cover, was the brainchild of one man, Lou Marchetti.

From the early 1950s through the late 1980s, Marchetti was a prolific cover artist in all genres for the leading paperback publishers of the era including Avon, Ballantine, Pocket Books, Dell Warner, Lancer, Popular Library and Fawcett Publishing.”


The women of Roissy from the 1975 film Histoire d’O



Screenshot (501)O嬢の物語 A JapaneseMiss O”prm1504040020-p3

KANEKO Kuniyoshi, was a Japanese painter, illustrator and photographer, perhaps best known for his paintings and drawings of women in bondage and his illustrations for a Japanese edition of Louis Carroll’s Alice In Wonderland. He was one of the most beloved and respected surrealist painters of Japan and sadly died of heart failure, in Tokyo, on the 16th of March 2015.

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Kaneko was born in Saitama (a region north-west of Tokyo) in 1936. He graduated in 1959 from Nihon University College of Arts where he studied under the stage designer Motohiro Nagasaka. Kaneko worked briefly for a graphic design company before going it alone as a painter. From 1964 he started drawing and finding his ‘style’ with oil paintings which drew on the inspirations of Balthus, Félix Labisse, and Western women’s fashion plates from the previous decade.

In the following year he met Ryuhio Shibusawa who was translating “Story of Ofor Japanese publication. Kaneko was charged with designing and drawing illustrations for the publication. It was a turning point for him. By way of Shibusawa’s enthusiastic introduction, Kaneko made his debut at the solo exhibition “Flower Maidens” at the Aoki Gallery in Ginza, in 1967.

[Some years previously O-translator Shibusawa produced Akutoku no sakae, a translation of de Sade’s L’Histoire de Juliette; ou, Les Prosperites du vice. The work was immediately controversial, and in 1960, he and Kyōji Ishii the publisher, were prosecuted for public obscenity. Shibusawa, although discouraged, was not deterred, and continued to write works on eroticism and to translate the works of de Sade, as well as other French authors; he also produced essays and art criticism, and became a specialist in the study of medieval demonology.]


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“Kuniyoshi Kaneko was
an extraordinary artist
whose comet-like rise
began with his début in 1967”


His women of a sophisticated decadence, perhaps from a period earlier than his own, struck a chord. He went on to illustrate a number of other novels of French literature including Georges Bataille’s Story of the Eye and Madam Edwarda5103727270df5f7efac99a4b7461cb90

He also received enthusiastic support for his cover illustrations for Eureka and Fujin Koron magazines. He Admired the surrealist artist Leonor Fini, and agreed with her when she remarked that “there is a white canvas which speaks to you. You don’t have to think of what to paint.”

In 1991 Kaneko provided the artwork for Alice: An Interactive Museum click-and-go adventure game. In 1992 his work was included in Adam and Eve an exhibition at the Saitama Kenritsu Kindai Bijutsukan (Museum of Modern Art) in Saitama. In his last years he contributed cover illustrations for a Japanese edition of Shakespeare, consolidating his success in his homeland.



In addition to painting, Kaneko’s activities encompassed a broad range of genres, including woodblock printing, kimono design, and scenic art.

The latter found Kaneko assisting in 1967 with the production of a staged dance performance inspired by Story of O. It was staged by Mika Ito (1936 -1970) avant-garde dancer and leader of the Bizar Dance Group.


The first performance of “Lady O Story” was held in October 1967 in front of a 700 strong audience – with stage design by artist Kaneko Kuniyoshi, publicity design by Aki Uno, – Yotsuya Simon, doll-maker, assisted with costume design. A performance in the December of 1967 resulted in some controversy after the audience, who had queued down the street for tickets, responded in a rather ‘hands-on’ fashion during the final scene.

‘O’ dancer Mika Ito was at this time married to Bungaku Itō, one of the founders of Japan’s first gay magazine Barazoku. He recalls Mika saying,

When I came into contact with this French female writer Pauline Rèage, I trembled with quite a lot of excitement, and it seems that such writers did not actually exist anywhere in reality, according to the translators’ postscript, it is probably someone anonymous. However, I did not care about such things, I shouted with my heart “This is it!” I thought whether there was such a suitable work for what was expressed in the form of modern dance, which is art of the body. “



KANEKO Kuniyoshi talks about Story of O:


Blogging “O”:

Margaret Drabble:
“The most erotic book I ever read was an anonymous novel called L’Histoire d’O, which I think was by a woman called Pauline Réage. It was a sado-masochistic romp and I was given a copy in France in the 1960s when it was probably illegal in England.”

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I am reminded that Histoire d’O means (if it means anything at all) many things to as many people. This week I received an email claiming the “alternative” end scene of Story of O (in which ‘O’ chooses death) should be played out to a rendition of the Nazi party anthem Horst Wessel Leid; 

“What Reage’s novel has given us is not an erotic experience.” my writer maintaines, “Reage has perverted that experience into the Nazification of love and desire.  The silly rituals, the rules, the punishments, the rapes in the presence of witnesses seem more appropriate to a Nuremberg rally gone even more wrong, or to a Gotterdamerung scored by Joe Goebbels himself…”

My attention is also drawn to a blog in which , artist, poet, writer and animal rights activist Heidi Coon looks at Story of O through the prism of French philosopher Michel Foucault;

“the reader is immersed in a confessional of desire. A confession that, indeed, liberates the individuals simultaneously, freeing binding chains and exposing their truths. The deployment of sexual desire, the act of the mutual exchanges of power, the gift giving and receiving, are all ultimately confessed inside Roissy.”


“The women at Roissy have consented to their silence, limiting their confessions to physical demonstrativeness…”

Heidi continues; “Whether dominance versus submission, slave versus master, or pain versus pleasure; they both need to be present. They exist in both a shocking and dramatic polar opposition. The chateau is a nondescript, private home, situated on an avenue near the park, yet it holds dark secrets and screams deep inside its belly. Rene is cruel, yet loving. Sir Stephen is brutal, yet gentle. O is willingly possessed, yet filled with a deep desire for love. For Rene, she will do anything to please him, as to please him is to know that she is loved by him. His preference was for her to submit, and her submission was solely for the sake of her lover, Rene. Reage, one might suppose, takes ‘re-gifting’ to an extreme as O’s gift of her body becomes Rene’s gift to the men at the chateau.”

Story of O seems forever on the edge of our culture and publishers were quick to remind the general reader of its existence in the wake of the hugely successful Fifty Shades of GreyFifteen years ago readers in Norway had a full awareness of the book’s existence. The Times of August 2003 announced,

The Bookseller noted that the most stolen book in Norwegian bookshops was The Story of O – to the extent that the publishers have now put a band around it saying, “NORWAY’S MOST STOLEN BOOK!“…”

Story of O even got a shout out in Frasier. There’s an episode of Frasier in which the character Roz Doyle  comes to a Halloween party as O from Story of O. Nobody gets it, – she reveals;

“I’m ‘O’ from the Story of O6yjM1Vk


… “it’s gonna be a long night”

I am reminded Story of O also crops up in François Ozon ‘s motion picture 5×2 (2004). A yellow paperback is surreptitiously drawn from a packing box by Marion (Valeria BruniTedeschi) and leafed through briefly by herself and then by her husband, both sitting on the floor of their empty apartment. The book is, of course, Histoire d’O and forms a momentary, but unconsummated, opportunity for reconciliation. The next scene takes place in the divorce lawyer’s office.

The book scene was dropped from the final edit and remains a “deleted scene”, part of the ‘Extras’ on the DVD release.

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5×2 (also known as Cinq fois deux) is a 2004 French film directed by François Ozon, which uncovers the back story to the gradual disintegration of a middle class marriage by depicting five key moments in the relationship, but in reverse order. Ozon also directed 8 Women, The Swimming Pool, and Under the Sand.


By its very nature Histoire d’O remains on the edge of the culture but forever worthy of study, examination and discussion.

Lars von Trier’s “O”


It is said Lars von Trier’s oblique contribution to the STORY OF O culture, forecasts in many ways, the “women in peril” films that he’d start making in the 1990s. Inspired by Dominique Aury’s Histoire d’O,

Menthe – la bienheureuse (1979)

tells the story of a voluntary female submission. “But,” writes Swedish commentator Ulf Kjell Gür, “it also draws on the narrative style of Marguerite Duras as if retouched by Jean Genet.”

Ulf Kjell Gür continues,The title has been translated into English as Menthe – the blissful but it would probably be more accurate (if apparently awkward) to translate it as Mint – the blessed one. The question of the addressee’s name is disputed through the dialogic narrative that unfolds as Menthe’s history is elliptically told by the speaker who attempts to entice her to travel with her to the “South”.

… Besides the ecstatically mutilated woman who reappears at the center of von Trier’s Golden Heart trilogy and in the figures of “Grace” and “She”, this film also introduces the Ascension motif which has its counterpart in the final shot of The Orchid Gardener also where the Dreyer-esque “Jew” appears to impale the film itself as if it were Vampyr.”

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“chains and whips and lustful punishment…”

Lars Von Trier was born on April 30, 1956 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Trier, who invented his “von” as a sarcastic joke in his youth, grew up in an affluent neighbourhood north of Copenhagen in a typical “cultural liberal” home. He began making films from the age of 11, experimenting with a ‘Super 8’ camera given to him as a gift.


Menthe la bienheureuse was created within the framework of Triers’ membership to Filmgroup 16, a small filmmaker group founded in 1964 in the small town of Hvidovre, near Copenhagen, which pursued a noncommercial kino concept and produced in 16 mm format.


Danish film professor and author Peter Schepelern has written, sexuality has always been an important element of fascination in von Trier’s work, though he does not connect to the jovial, humorous Danish tradition but rather, as in Bergman’s oeuvre, presents sexuality as a field of torment, obsession and depravity. Not only did von Trier read Nietzsche, Strindberg and Freud as a young man, he was also fascinated by Pauline Réage’s “The Story of O” and Marquis de Sade’s “Justine”, as well as films like Cavani’s “The Night Porter” and Pasolini’s “Salò”, which he later re-imported for distribution in Denmark.”

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Schepelern continues, “Von Trier’s fascination with sexuality as a dark, demonic force is quite evident in the first two films he made during his student years in the late ’70s. Privately financed, “The Orchid Gardener” and “Menthe la bienheureuse” (freely adapted from “The Story of O”) with their chains and whips and lustful punishment clearly anticipate both “Antichrist” and “Nymphomaniac”.”

Menthe is a fascinating short film. It’s sexual frankness is perhaps curtailed by what became the myth of Scandinavia being the haven of pornography.  Peter Schepelern explains; “Danish culture and society in the years when von Trier grew up were marked by a political

decision that could be seen as a sensational triumph for cultural liberalism, though it was mainly the product of a right-wing government. Denmark was the first country in the world to abolish laws against pornography – text in 1967 and images in 1969. Moreover, in 1969, Denmark was the first country to abolish film censorship for the grownup population (in 1997 all film censorship was abolished)…

Screenshot (431)…In Denmark, the legalization of pornography was, perhaps somewhat naively, seen as a victory for freedom of expression – in line with the new spirit of liberation that washed over the Western world in the 1960s. This new freedom, however, did not result in an explosion of pornography in Danish films.”

In its 31 minutes Menthe briefly and freely applies motifs and imagery from Histoire d’O in a style which leaves the viewer wondering what von Trier might do with the material if he chose to return to the chateau, so to speak, today.

Not only is the grand house situated in Roissy represented but also its gardener raking leaves, as observed by ‘O’ from her ‘cell’. This is one of many splendid moments in the original novel which one might wish to see explored fully on the silver screen:

“O watched the slow birth of pale dawn… It was broad daylight by now, and O had not moved for a long time. A gardener appeared on the path, pushing a wheelbarrow. The iron wheel could be heard squeaking over the gravel. If he had come over to rake the leaves that had fallen in among the asters, the window was so tall and the room so small and bright that he would have seen O chained and naked and the marks of the riding crop on her thighs.”

“banishment of certainty…”

The rings “O wore at her belly”, the brand bearing Sir Stephen’s initials, and the owl mask from the novel’s closing chapter all appear briefly in von Trier’s Menthe, set against other unconnected images including “exotic” landscape and an image of emaciated African children. Images, images and sounds, making connections which, Dr Angelos Koutsourakis in his Politics as form in Lars von Trier: a post-Brechtian reading points out, “refuse any sense of dramatic linearity.”

Koutsourakis talks of a combination of “austerity with spectacular fragments”, a “banishment of certainty” and “a plethora of interconnections between desire, power and domination”. The visuals in front of us becoming analytical and thus producing a sense of “critical distance and detachment and authorial uncertainty” is something Koutsourakis maintains, “that characterizes the whole corpus” of von Trier’s filmography.

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Von Trier referred to the need to make films which go beyond the authority of the text and do not follow the classical psychological formula in which the actions justify the characters and vice versa. In his own words, “the story line is the pretext of the film but the other elements don’t have to point in the same direction.”

Not surprisingly von Trier’s oblique trajectory finds the inspiration for Manderlay (2005) in the introduction to the novel Story of O, Happiness in Slavery. Trier; “The French writer Jean Paulhan tells of the former slaves on the Caribbean island of Barbados who ask their former master to take them on as slaves again. When the man refuses, he and his family are massacred.”

At the close of the 1980s von Trier had, by all accounts, serious plans for adapting two erotic classics for the big screen: Story of O and de Sade’s Justine.
Swedish-Danish film critic and author/editor of books on Lars von Trier, Jan Lumholdt asked the obvious question, “What happened?”


“Well,” replied von Trier, “I had some contact with the son of “Pauline Reage” – who by the way amazed me in that she was actually a woman, I always thought that the novel had been written by a man – and I told him I was interested in the rights. But when he found out who I was, he said, “Never!”. He had seen The Element of Crime and he absolutely hated that film. And then I gave it up altogether.”

Will von Trier return to “O”? Who knows. However, Jan Lumholdt informs me ” I do my best and ask him every time we meet. I will keep asking him. We’re still young. It will happen. Will, will, will.”



Cast :
Inger Hvidtfeldt The Woman
Annette Linnet Menthe
Carl-Henrik Trier The Gardener
Lars von Trier The Driver
Jenni Dick The Old Lady
Brigitte Pelissier Voice of The Woman (voice)


From RUSSIA with Love

Moscow based artist Valeria Kemnits has permitted me to reproduce her rather lovely illustrations to Story of O.
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They have an unmistakably fairy tale style in keeping with how Pauline Réage (Dominique Aury, – born Anne Desclos) described her novel Histoire d’O:
“Story of O is a fairy tale for another world, a world where some part of me lived for a long time, a world that no longer exists except between the covers of a book.”
Valeria, a graduate of Moscow Folk Arts Higher School and Stroganov Moscow State University of Industrial And Applied Arts, tells me; “I chose this book for my diploma work because it’s kind of fairy tale, – a little bit. Unfortunately they were not published. That’s my big dream…”istoriya_O.indd

“I chose this book for my diploma work because it’s kind of fairy tale…”

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Since beginning her career in the late 1990s Valeria has exhibited widely. Soon after graduating in 2004 she exhibited in Sweden with over thirty works sold by auction, at the JFC cultural center in Stockholm. Exhibitions followed in Moscow (including «Hansa: Dream of time» at the Moscow House of Nationality) and in Sorrento, Italy.
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In recent times Valeria has turned her attention to interpreting the music of Metallica about which she maintains;13043401_994350610641192_7344386206319378298_n (2)
“Everything is there: suffering and hope, pain and happiness, love and hate, life and death, anger and serenity…”

All images © Valeria Kemnits